Germany on Saturday marked the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall that separated East and West German.
Speaking at the memorial, Chancellor Angela Merkel remembered the victims.
"Too many people became a victim of the SED (East German ruling party) dictatorship. We will not forget them. I remember the people who were killed here at this wall because they were looking for freedom. I also remember the 75,000 people who were imprisoned because they tried to flee their country. I remember the people who suffered from repression because their relatives fled. I remember the people who were spied on and denounced."
The toppling of the wall on November 9th, 1989, which had divided the Communist-ruled East and the capitalist West in Berlin for nearly three decades, was followed a year later by the reunification of Germany in 1990.
The chancellor herself grew up in Communist East Germany.
November 9 also marks the night in 1938 when the Nazis whipped up anti-Jewish riots in a pogrom known as the "Kristallnacht" or "the Night of Broken Glass."
Merkel called it "a day of fate in German history" as she remembered - quote - "the crimes committed against Jewish people in Germany."